The Middle Ages, or Medieval Times, in Europe lasted from 500 AD to 1500 AD with the first half often referred as the Dark Ages. During the Dark Ages, the works of pagan scholars such as Pythagoras and Aristotle were denigrated and condemned, and even worse, many of the classical Greek texts were destroyed or lost (Greenwood, 2009). According to Hergenhahn (2009), when mysticism, superstition, and anti-intellectualism dominated Europe, both commerce and learning declined, thus “little or no progress was made in science, philosophy, or literature” (p. 82). During that time, the medieval Christian Church became extremely powerful, unchallengeable, and “hostile to scientific thinking, to the point of the active persecution of scientists” (Greenwood, 2009, p. 79).
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