Pygmalion effect proposes that leaders’ attitudes toward and expectations of followers, and their treatment of them, explain and predict followers’ behavior and performance.
The concept of Theory X and Theory Y is similar to the Pygmalion effect, because both theories focus on the leader’s attitude about the followers. The Pygmalion effect extends Theory X and Theory Y attitudes by including the leader’s expectations and how he or she treats the followers, using this information to explain and predict followers’ behavior and performance. In contrast, Theory X and Theory Y focus on the leader’s behavior and performance. Both approaches are different from self-concept because they examine the leader’s attitudes about others, whereas self-concept relates to the leader’s attitude about him- or herself. Self-concept is also different because it focuses on how the leader’s attitude about him- or herself affects his or her behavior and performance.
Lussier, R. N. & Achua, C. F. (2010). Leadership: Theory, application, and skill development (4th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.