Genetic tests include “tests that assess genotypes, mutations, or chromosomal changes” (Abiola, 2008, p. 857). Genetic testing refers to a variety of diagnostic or predictive technologies for analyzing a person’s genetic make-up. The test procedure analyzes the DNA in a person’s blood or other biological material in order to identify changes in the structure of a particular gene or the level of its expression in different organs. Genetic tests can be used “to diagnose hereditary diseases, to provide information about susceptibility or risk of developing a disease, to evaluate the likelihood of a person’s positive or negative reaction to a medication and to identify an individual and/or their relatedness to others” (Williams-Jones & Ozdemir, 2008, p. 34).
Abiola, S. (2008). Recent Development in Health Law: The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008: 'First Major Civil Rights Bill of the Century' Bars Misuse of Genetic Test Results. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 36(4), 856-865.
Williams-Jones, B., & Ozdemir, V. (2008). Challenges for corporate ethics in marketing genetic tests. journal of business ethics, 77(1), 33-44. doi:10.2307/25075539